SQL

https://pgexercises.com/

http://tatiyants.com/pev/ - Explain Visualiser

Data Description Language (DDL)Data Manipulation Language (DML)Data Control Language (DCL)Transaction Control Language (TCL)
CREATE/ALTER/DROP/TRUNCATE/RENAMESELECT/INSERT/UPDATE/DELETEGRANT/REVOKEBEGIN/COMMIT/ROLLBACK/SAVEPOINT

Query Summary

The key actions are:

SELECT [DISTINCT] ... FROM ...
UNION
[INNER|LEFT|RIGHT|OUTER] JOIN ... ON ...
WHERE ...
GROUP BY ...
HAVING ...
ORDER BY ... [ASC|DESC]
LIMIT ... OFFSET ...

INSERT INTO ... VALUES ...

UPDATE ... SET ... [WHERE ...]

DELETE ...

SELECT can be used with AS to rename a table or a column.

UNION adds the rows of different queries

HAVING allows aggregate functions. WHERE filters individual rows before the GROUP BY, while HAVING filters group rows created by the GROUP BY.

The order is in fact:

  1. FROM [UNION/JOIN]
  2. WHERE
  3. GROUP BY
  4. HAVING
  5. SELECT
  6. ORDER BY
  7. LIMIT

ORDER BY clause example: ORDER BY x DESC, y NULLS FIRST.

SQL:2008 The LIMIT clause is OFFSET n ROWS FETCH FIRST m ROWS ONLY.

Operations

We have the arithmetic operators +, -, *, /, and %.

Logical/Comparison operators include:

IS (NOT) NULL
UNIQUE?
=, <, >
<>, !=
NOT, AND, OR
BETWEEN ... AND ...
EXISTS
IN ...
LIKE ...
... ANY, ALL

BETWEEN can be numbers, texts, or dates. In the case of text it seems to use alphabetical ordering (Unicode considerations)?

EXISTS tests whether a subquery returns any values (boolean existence check).

IN can use a tuple of values ('George', 'Clooney'), or a subquery.

LIKE uses two wildcards % (0+ characters), and _ (exactly one character). For example, _r% would mean values with "r" in the 2nd position.

ANY and ALL can be used with an operator against a subquery, e.g. WHERE column = ANY (SELECT ...).

Aggregate Functions

We have aggregate functions that can act on values:

MIN
MAX
COUNT
AVG
SUM

Be aware, that the aggregate selects on the column, and will not select the entire row.

Common Table Expressions (CTEs)

Create composable queries using query-specific views. I call these WITH clauses.

WITH
    my_view AS (
        SELECT x
        FROM y
    )
    -- Remove invalid things
  , my_filter AS (
        SELECT x
        FROM y
        WHERE x IS NOT NULL
    )

SELECT x
FROM my_filter
;

Correlated Subqueries

A query nested inside another query that uses values from the outer query.

The subquery is (usually) evaluated once for each outer query row.

In the SELECT clause:

SELECT
    a
  , (
        SELECT AVG(x2.a)
        FROM x AS x2
        WHERE x2.b = x1.b
    )
FROM x AS x1

In the WHERE clause:

SELECT a
FROM x AS x1
WHERE
    a > (
        SELECT AVG(a)
        FROM x AS x2
        WHERE x2.b = x1.b
    )
;

Window functions

https://thoughtbot.com/blog/postgres-window-functions

Misc.

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